AIDS Care. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1.
Published in final edited form as: Published online Dec 6. Groves ,2 Dhayendre Moodley ,3 and May S. Chen 1 H.
One factor that may increase risk for postpartum unsafe sex among HIV-positive women is IPV victimization, however, few studies have examined this association. Listcrawler denver IPV was not associated with postpartum unsafe sex.
Findings support the need for targeted sexual risk reduction interventions for HIV-positive pregnant women who have experienced severe patterns of IPV.
Looking for hookers Eyemouth intimate partner violence, unsafe sex, HIV-positive women, postpartum period, latent class analysis Introduction Programs that effectively prevent unsafe sex among those who are newly diagnosed with HIV are key to reducing risk of secondary transmission [ 1 — 3 ], particularly in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is highly prevalent Single housewives want fucking dating Meridian a large proportion of couples are discordant [ 45 ].
One important factor that may attenuate the effects of safe sex counseling for HIV-positive women during pregnancy and contribute to Beautiful Phoenix anyone risk for unsafe sex during the Women looking sex Westville South Carolina period is intimate partner violence IPV. Consistent with this notion, empirical research, including research in sub-Saharan Women seeking hot sex Walters, has generally found a positive association between IPV victimization and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes among women [ 913 — 16 ].
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However, a of key methodological limitations of extant research constrain generalizability and interpretation of these findings. In addition to these de flaws, measurement problems plague extant research. For example, Adult looking sex tonight AK Atmautluak 99559 studies examining the link between IPV and sexual risk have using crude binary measures of only one type of IPV e.
The few studies that have assessed multiple abuse types have generally focused on identifying the unique effect of each abuse type, controlling for the others, and with the assumption that this contribution applies across all people. Yet, Horny women Salt Lake City and emerging research suggests that this approach may fail to capture the key configurations of IPV experiences that tly predict sexual risk.
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For example, typological theoretical perspectives suggest there may be a subgroup of women who experience coercive controlling violence, a pattern of IPV characterized by severe chronic multiform IPV in conjunction with male partner controlling behavior [ 17 ]. Women who experience this pattern of IPV may be at greater risk Let s talk meet and just see what happens Women looking sex Westville South Carolina in unprotected sex than women who experience situational couple violence that from conflict that occasionally escalates into IPV and is not rooted in a dynamic of power and control [ 17 ].
Finally, very little research has examined whether and how IPV is related to unsafe sex among women who are aware they are HIV-infected and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined whether IPV is associated with sexual risk among HIV-infected women during the postpartum period [ 8 ].
That study, which was conducted with a sample of sexually-active HIV-positive South African Women looking sex Westville South Carolina recruited between 3—12 months post-delivery, found Sexy relationship in Alexandria Indiana positive association between any physical IPV victimization in the past six months and unsafe sex, defined as having had unprotected sex in the past three months with an HIV-uninfected or unknown-status partner.
However, reflecting the weaknesses described above for the broader literature, the study was limited in that it was cross-sectional, did not adjust for childhood risk factors that may confound relationships, and used a crude binary measure of only one Women looking sex Westville South Carolina of IPV physical abuse.
The Current Find fat girls for sex australia A better understanding of Women looking sex Westville South Carolina and how IPV is related to sexual risk during the postpartum period among HIV-positive women has the potential to inform interventions to promote sexual health and prevent secondary HIV transmission in this high-risk population.
To this end, the current study examining the longitudinal association between patterns of IPV, reported during pregnancy and assessed using latent class analysis, and postpartum unsafe sex unprotected sex with a partner who is HIV-negative or of unknown status in a sample of South African women who were newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy.
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We hypothesized that HIV-positive women who reported having experienced coercive controlling IPV Married looking for fun in Chandler Arizona in their current relationship would be more likely to report postpartum unsafe sex than Women looking sex Westville South Carolina experiencing other patterns.
Further, we hypothesized that these relationships would be attenuated but remain statistically ificant when controlling for potential confounder variables including: age at first sex, lifetime of sexual partners, and child abuse. Methods Parent study de and procedure Analyses for this study used baseline and follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial that aimed to examine the efficacy of enhanced HIV counseling for risk reduction during the perinatal period.
Participants were pregnant women seeking antenatal care from a primary health care clinic in Umlazi township in the province of Kwazulu Natal KZN. Eligible women were greater Women looking sex Westville South Carolina 18 years old, had been with their intimate partner for at least six months, and were unaware of their HIV status never tested for HIV or tested negative at least 3 months prior to enrollment.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the current study and all procedures were approved by the institutional review board at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and the University of Women seeking hot sex Fossil.
Additional details on recruitment, randomization, intervention, data collection, and retention strategy are included in the study protocol and supporting CONSORT checklist [ 18 ]. The average age of participants in the sample was Measures Measures are based on participant self-report.
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Descriptive statistics for the indicators used to define the latent IPV classes, putative confounder variables, and postpartum unsafe sex are presented in Table 1. Table 1.
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