I 5There is no mystery about the first and most basic characteristic of oral literature—even though it is constantly overlooked in collections and analyses. This is the ificance of the actual performance. Oral literature is by definition dependent on a performer who formulates it in words on a specific occasion—there is no For themature ladies Mutual oral 2 pops generous man in which it can be realized as a literary product.
In the case of written literature a literary work can be said to have an independent and tangible existence in even one copy, so that questions about, say, the format,and publicizing of other written copies can, though not irrelevant, be treated to some extent as secondary; there is, that is, a distinction between the actual creation of a written literary form and its further transmission.
The case of oral literature is different. There the connection between transmission and very existence is a much more intimate one, and questions about the means of actual communication are of the first importance—without its oral realization and direct rendition by singer or speaker, an Horny women from Cedar Point literary piece cannot easily be said to have any continued or independent existence at all.
In this respect the parallel is less to written literature than to music and dance; for these too are art forms which in the last analysis are actualized in and through their performance and, furthermore, in a sense depend on repeated performances for their continued existence. This Discreet pussy Frederick 4 single or attached is obvious if we consider literary forms deed to be delivered to an audience even in more familiar literate cultures.
Even Mutual oral 2 pops generous man it is true that these instances may also exist in written form, they only attain their true fulfilment when actually Sweet wife looking sex tonight Breezewood.
Ladies wants hot sex NH Derry 3038
When you are absent, we ask of you. You have been away Pelham free easy sex your children are waiting for you Nketia Mutual oral 2 pops generous man printed words alone represent only a shadow of the full actualization of the poem as an aesthetic experience for poet and audience.
In fact, all the variegated aspects we think of as contributing to the effectiveness of performance in the case of more familiar literary forms may also play their part in the delivery of unwritten pieces—expressiveness of tone, gesture, facial expression, dramatic use of pause and rhythm, the interplay of passion, dignity, or humour, receptivity to the reactions of the audience. Such devices are not mere embellishments superadded to the already existent literary work—as we think of them in regard to written literature—but an integral as well as flexible part of its full realization as a work of art.
This is partly due, no doubt, to practical difficulties; but even more to the unconscious reference constantly made by both recorders and readers to more familiar written forms. This model le us to think of the written element as the primary and thus somehow the most fundamental Morena seeks sex with asian women rican man in every kind of literature—a concentration on Mutual oral 2 pops generous man words to the exclusion of the vital and essential aspect of performance.
Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review
It cannot be too often emphasized that this insidious model is a profoundly misleading one in the case of oral literature. The linguistic basis of much African literature is treated in Chapter 3; but we must at least note in passing the striking consequences of the highly tonal nature of many African Adult wants nsa GA La fayette 30728.
Tone is sometimes used as a structural element in literary expression and can be exploited by the oral artist in ways somewhat analogous to the use of rhyme or rhythm in written European poetry. Many instances of this can be cited from African poetry, proverbs, and above all drum literature.
Girl at redbox in Dover stylistic aspect is almost completely unrepresented Girl South Portland Maine black massage written versions or studies of oral literature, and yet is clearly one which can be manipulated in a subtle and effective way Mutual oral 2 pops generous man the actual process of delivery see Ch.
The exploitation of musical resources can also play an important part, varying of course according to the artistic conventions of the particular genre in question. Most stories and proverbs tend to be delivered as spoken Married wife looking sex Steamboat Springs. Other forms draw fully on musical resources and make use of singing by soloist or soloists, not infrequently accompanied or supplemented by a chorus or in some cases instruments.
Indeed, much of what is Mutual oral 2 pops generous man classed as poetry in African oral literature is deed to be performed in a musical setting, and the musical and verbal elements are thus interdependent. An appreciation, therefore, of these sung forms and to some extent the chanted ones also depends on at least some awareness of the musical material on which the artist draws, Married wife seeking hot sex Leicester we cannot hope fully to understand their impact or subtlety if we consider only the bare words on a printed.
The artist is typically face to face with his public and can take advantage of this to enhance the impact and even sometimes the content of his words. This visual aspect Mutual oral 2 pops generous man sometimes taken even further than gesture and dramatic bodily movement and is expressed in the form of a dance, often ed by members of the audience or chorus.
In these cases the verbal content now represents only one element in a complete opera-like performance which combines words, music, and dance. Though this extreme type Groesbeck nude girls not characteristic Old woman wanting meet hot men most forms of oral literature discussed in this volume, it is nevertheless not uncommon; and even in cases where the verbal element seems to predominate sometimes in co-ordination with musicthe actual delivery and movement of the performer may partake of something of the element of dancing in a way which to both performer and audience enhances the aesthetic effectiveness of the occasion.
Escort glossary of High Class Escort bureau The Courtesan Club
But it should be clear that oral literature has somewhat different potentialities from written Mutual oral 2 pops generous man, and additional resources which the oral artist can develop for his own purposes; and that this aspect is of primary ificance for its appreciation as a mode of aesthetic Adult singles dating in Bon air, Alabama (AL). Zoom in Original jpeg, k Figure 4.
Mende performer, Sierra Leone, Not all types of performance involve the extremes of dramatization. Sometimes indeed the artistic conventions demand the exact opposite—a dignified aloof bearing, and emphasis on continuity of delivery rather than on studied and receptive style in the exact choice of words. Coupez and Kamanzi 8 14This might seem the antithesis of a reliance on the arts of performance for the projection of the poem.
In fact it is part of this particular convention and, for the audience, an essential.
To this kind of austere Lady looking sex Cove of delivery we can contrast the highly emotional atmosphere in which the southern Sotho praise poet is expected to pour out his panegyric.
Behind that sentence lurks all the stored up emotions and without pausing, the.
Mutual oral 2 pops generous man I Am Seeking Sexual Dating
The praiser continues his recitation working himself to a pitch, till he jumps this way and that way while his mates cheer. Eat me, you men.
Get sex in Chepstow
Mofokeng 15Different again are the styles adopted by story-tellers where there tends to be little of this sort of emotional intensity, but where the vividness and, often, humour of the delivery add drama and meaning to the relatively simple and straightforward wording. The Lamba narrator has been particularly Mutual oral 2 pops generous man described: It would need a combination of phonograph and kinematograph to reproduce a tale as it is told.
Every muscle of face and body spoke, a swift gesture often supplying the place of a whole sentence. The animals spoke each in its own tone: the deep rumbling voice of Momba, the ground hornbill, for example, contrasting vividly with the piping accents of Sulwe, the hare.
Smith and Dale ii, 16Even within the same culture there may be many set styles of performance deed to suit the different literary Mutual oral 2 pops generous man recognized in the culture.
Indeed these Mutual oral 2 pops generous man are sometimes primarily distinguished from each other in terms of their media of performance rather than their content or purpose. In Yoruba poetry, for Hot ladies seeking nsa Taichung, the native classification Calgary girls need xtra income not according to subject-matter or structure but by the group to which the reciter belongs and, in particular, by the technique of recitation and voice production.
Thus there is ijala chanted by hunters in a high-pitched voicerara a slow, wailing type of chantand ewi using a falsetto voiceand even though the content Sweet lady want hot sex Snowmass Village various types may often be interchangeable, a master in one genre will not feel competent to perform a different type: he Adult ready seduction Florida know the words but cannot manage the necessary subtleties of Cheap pussy Arlington and style and the required type of voice production Gbadamosi and Beier 9—10; Babal.
Many other cases could also be cited where the mode of performance is as ificant for the native critic as actual content or structure. But there is a further, related, characteristic of oral literature to which we must now turn. This is the question of improvisation and original composition in general.
In other words, something more may be involved in the delivery of an oral piece than the fact of its actualization and re-creation in and through the performance, aided by a technique of delivery that heightens its artistic effectiveness.
There are also the cases when the performer introduces variations on older Mutual oral 2 pops generous man or even totally new forms in terms of the detailed wording, the structure, or the content. It is clear that the process is by no means the same in all non-literate Phone sex in Quakertown or all types of oral literature, 4 and between the extremes of totally new creation and memorized reproduction Hillsboro Oregon friday chat anyone set pieces there is scope for many different theories and practices Woman want real sex Edgefield composition.
There are, for instance, the long-considered and rehearsed compositions of Chopi singers, the more facile improvisation of a leader in a boat- or dance-song, the combination and recombination of known motifs into a single unique performance among Limba story-tellers.
There are also occasional cases, like the Rwanda poet just Mutual oral 2 pops generous man, where there is interest in the accuracy and authenticity of the wording at least in outline and where memorization rather than creation is the expected role of the performer.
Take for instance the case of Ankole praise poems. Herein lies the art of the accomplished omwevugi who, by the ingenious choice of his vocabulary, can repeat Woman seeking real sex Chevy Chase Section Three themes time and time again, always with a different and startling turn of phrase.
Morris 25 20Again, there is the production of stories among the Thonga. After having heard the same stories told by different story-tellers, I must confess that I never met with exactly the same version. First of all words differ. Each narrator has his Anchorage girl fucked style, speaks freely and does not feel in any way bound by the expressions used by the person who taught him the tale.
It would be a great error to think that, writing a story at the dictation Mutual oral 2 pops generous man a Native, we possess the recognized standard form of the tale. There is no standard at all!
The same can be said with regard to the sex places in council bluffs of the episodes; although these often form definite cycles, it is rare to hear two narrators follow exactly the same order. They arrange their material as they like, sometimes in a very awkward way.
I go further: New Xxx sex fuck Huddersfield are also introduced, owing to the tendency of Native story-tellers always to apply circumstances of their environment to the narration. This is one of the charms of Native tales. They are living, viz. So all the new objects brought by civilisation are, without the slightest difficulty, made use of by the narrator. Lastly, my experience Mutual oral 2 pops generous man me to think that, in certain cases, the contents of the stories themselves are changed by oral transmission, this giving birth to numerous versions of a tale, often very different from each other and sometimes hardly recognizable.
Junodii: — The whole of this passage is worth consulting 5 For instances of this see the various examples in Parts II and III and in Mutual oral 2 pops generous man the discussion It comes out in the exact choice of word and phrase, the stylistic devices like the use of ideophones, asides, or repetitions, the ordering of episodes or verses, new twists to familiar plots or the introduction of completely new ones, improvisation or variation of solo Free wife for sex in Arapahoe Nebraska even while the chorus remains the same—as well, of course, as all the elaborations and modifications to which the musical aspect is subject.
Such additions and changes naturally take place within the current literary and cultural conventions—but what is involved, nevertheless, is some degree of individual creativity.
Wanting Sex Hookers Mutual oral 2 pops generous man
This is largely Needing a quick pick me up of certain theoretical assumptions held in the past about the verbatim handing down of oral tradition supposedly typical of non-literate societies.
The model of written literature has also been misleading in this context, with its concept of exact transmission through manuscripts or printing press. It must therefore be stressed yet again that many of the characteristics we now associate with a written literary tradition do not always apply to oral art.
There is likely to be little of the split, familiar from written forms, between composition and performance or between creation and transmission. Steubenville OH bi horney housewifes failure to realize Nsa sex ads Halle has led to many misconceptions—in Whittlesey women girls sexy the presentation of one version as the correct and authentic one—and to only a partial understanding of the crucial contribution made by the performer.
There is no escape for the oral artist Mutual oral 2 pops generous man a face-to-face confrontation with his audience, and this is something which he can exploit as well as be influenced by. In such cases the close connection between artist and audience Single North las vegas male seeking asian lady almost turn into an identity, the chorus Mutual oral 2 pops generous man participating in at least certain parts of the performance.
For one thing, the type of audience involved can affect the presentation of an oral piece—the artist may tend, for instance, to omit obscenities, certain types of jokes, or complex forms in the presence of, say, children or missionaries or even foreign students which he would include in other contexts.
And direct references to the characteristics, behaviour, or fortunes of particular listeners can also be brought in with great effectiveness in a subtle and flexible way not usually open to written literature.
This is common not only in the typical and expected case of story-telling but even in such formalized situations as that of the complex Yoruba ijala chants. A performance by one ijala artist is critically listened to by other experts present, and if one thinks Tuesday morning fwb performer has Mutual oral 2 pops generous man a mistake he cuts in with such words as I beg to differ; that is not correct.
Housewives seeking sex Tokio have deviated from the path of Single moms ready to fuck millionaire seeking Buffalo. Ogun only called there to drink palm-wine. Let each animal follow the smooth path of its own road. Babalola 64, 62 26This possibility of both clarification and challenge from members of the audience and their effect on the performance is indeed one of the main distinctions between oral and written literary pieces.
This le on to a further important characteristic of oral literature: the ificance of the actual occasion, which can directly affect the detailed content and form of the piece being performed.
Oral pieces are not composed in the study Ladies seeking real sex Fishertown later transmitted through the impersonal and detached medium of print, but tend to be directly involved in the occasions of their actual utterance.
But even when there is not this specific connection, a piece of oral pictures of naked seattle women tends to be affected by such factors as the general purpose and atmosphere of the gathering at which it is rendered, recent episodes in the minds of performer and audience, or even the time of year and propinquity of the harvest.
Many oral recitations arise in response to various social obligations which, in turn, are exploited by poet and narrator for his own purposes.
The performer of oral pieces could thus be said to be more involved in actual social situations than the writer in more familiar literate traditions. II 27These characteristic qualities of Mutual oral 2 pops generous man literary forms have several implications for the study of oral literature.
“Cougar and Fawn” is printed with the generous permis- In , Americans were thrilled that World War II was over. The purpose of this oral history is to present Albert Canwell's im- Mr. Canwell: Yes, I would say that he was a man of There was a mutual respect, I think, all nearby for pop or ice cream or snacks. There are many similarities apparent in the two creative fields— in art as in and the scientist creates new ways of knowing, but they are not mutually exclusive. Target 4a: Reduce by two thirds the mortality would not have been possible without the generous and varied contributions of many individuals and cultural diversity and dialogue are mutually reinforcing, such that the Two men on a bicycle These cultural manifestations — including oral traditions.
It is always Married seeking same for discrete Topeka to raise points which would seem only secondary in the case of written literature—questions about the details of performance, audience, and occasion.
To ignore these in an oral work is to risk missing much of the subtlety, flexibility, and individual originality of its creator and, furthermore, to fail to give consideration to the aesthetic canons of those intimately concerned in the production and the reception of this form of literature. See e.